Deciphering the Violent Universe

December 11-15 2017 | Playa del Carmen, Mexico


High energy astrophysics is an exciting laboratory of fundamental physics. Exotic and transient astrophysical phenomena reveal the violent and capricious nature of the Universe. Wide-field and all-sky monitoring has already led to a wealth of discoveries such as pulsars and gamma-ray bursts which probe extreme realms of physics and yet were not anticipated prior to their discovery. While huge progresses have been made in recent years, our understanding remains incomplete.

The goal of this conference is to present and discuss our current understandings of high energy transients, in particular:

  1. Gamma-Ray Bursts
  2. Core-Collapse Supernovae
  3. Thermonuclear and Super-Luminous Supernovae
  4. Fast Radio Bursts
  5. Tidal Disruption events
  6. Exotic transients (magnetars, soft gamma repeaters, neutrinos, etc)
  7. Gravitational Wave Sources
  8. Future missions

Each session will consist of invited and contributed talks. In addition, time for discussion will be allocated at the end of each session.

Invited Speakers

Matteo Cantiello - Flatiron Institute
The Uncertain Evolution of Core Collapse Supernova Progenitors
I will review the current status of our understanding of massive stars evolution, emphasizing both recent progress and areas where we still lack a physical picture of the dominating processes at work. I will discuss possible ways to move forward, stressing the emerging synergies between theoretical and computational efforts, and the new observational probes.
Selma de Mink - University of Amsterdam
GW: source populations and formation
Aside from constraints on general relativity, gravitational wave detections are providing us a truly unique new astrophysical insight in the end points of the lives of massive stars. The recent direct detections of gravitational waves by LIGO originated from stellar mass black holes, rather than neutron stars, contrary to what was generally anticipated. Moreover, these some of these black holes are substantially heavier than those that were known previously from X-ray detections.
I will review progress in our understanding (and the unknowns) of how massive stars in binary systems live their lives and what may determine whether they stay together until they coalesce as relativistic compact objects.
Ryan Foley - University of California, Santa Cruz
The Diversity of thermonuclear transients
Wen-fai Fong - University of Arizona
Short gamma-ray bursts
Maria Magdalena González - UNAM
HAWC: recent results
The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a wide field-of-view TeV instrument. It has been operating since March 2015 from the Volcano Sierra Negra in the State of Puebla, Mexico, at an altitude of 4100 m. above sea level. HAWC operates continuously over a 95% of the time and observes two thirds of the TeV sky.
HAWC sensitivity peaks at energies between 2-10 TeV which is close to an order of magnitude higher than IACTs, making their observations complementary. After more than 2 years of operation, HAWC has achieved its second steady source catalogue with both, previously known and new sources, the observation of extended sources and, a search for TeV transient and variable sources as well as follow-up alerts from other instruments such as Fermi, LIGO, etc., among other results. This talk will present recent highlights from the first years of HAWC operations.
Jonathan Granot - The Open University of Israel
Magnetic fields in GRBs
Magnetic fields likely play an important role in most aspects of the GRB phenomena, from the launching and acceleration of the relativistic outflow, through the jet dynamics and stability, to the energy dissipation, particle acceleration and the production of the radiation that we observe. I will review some of the recent progress in our understanding of the role of magnetic fields in GRBs.
Dafne Guetta - ORT-Braude
Neutrinos from astrophysical sources
One of the key goals in high energy astrophysics is to understand the formation and the dynamics of astrophysical jets and discover the sources of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). Cosmic Rays are extremely high energy charged particles that travel the universe at nearly the speed of light. Though they were discovered nearly a century ago, the research community is still puzzled by the origin of these high energy particles. Since neutrinos rarely interact, huge detectors covering an area of more than 1 km2 are required to make a statistically significant measurement. The South Pole in Antarctica is the host of IceCube, the first 1 km2 scale high energy neutrino detector that was completed in 2011. In this talk I will review the main mechanisms that may lead to the production of High Energy Neutrinos (TeV-PeV) from astrophysical sources. I will give an overview on the characteristic of these emissions and an estimate of the fluxes and rates that can be detected at the future and present neutrino telescopes. I will discuss the constraints given on these sources from the results of IceCube and future ultra high energy telescope ARA.
James Guillochon - Harvard University
Models of tidal disruption events
Alexander Heger - Monash University
Stripped Core-collapse Supernovae
It is the current paradigm that massive stars - if single, if of not too high initial mass, initial metallicity, or initial rotation - are expected to keep their hydrogen-rich outer layers until their death and the typical Type II supernovae - in their different varieties - results as the star dies. That is a lot of "if"s. In practise, as you may guess, some, if not several, of these conditions may be violated for many stars. It now known that most massive stars live in "close" binaries, close enough to interact in their lifetime, transfer mass and angular momentum, or even lose the envelope due to interaction with the companion stars, e.g., in a common envelope phase. We also know that stellar rotation leads to mixing; for very rapid rotation the star may evolve chemically homogeneous during hydrogen burning, with significant mixing possibly lasting until helium burning - significantly shrinking or even entirely removing the hydrogen envelope. Lastly, massive stars also blow winds from their surface, more fiercely the more massive, more metal-rich, or more luminous the star is. All of this leads to a different set of supernovae classes: stripped supernovae. These may range from objects just above the critical mass for core collapse all the way to very massive stars exploding as pair instability supernovae or making intermediate-mass black holes; stripped stars are also prime candidates for long-duration gamma-ray bursts as they are can be more compact than stars with hydrogen envelope. In this talk I will attempt to give an overview of core collapse supernovae that have lost the hydrogen-rich envelope, with focus on the progenitors and their evolution.
Grzegorz Kowal - Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul
Particle acceleration mechanisms
The first observations of high-energy radiation, commonly known as cosmic rays, took place over one hundred years ago. Soon after the discovery of cosmic rays, Victor Hess in 1912 confirmed with his observations, that they are mostly of galactic or extra-galactic origin. Their origin and nature, however, still puzzles the modern astrophysics and is considered one of the unresolved problems. In the first part of my talk I will briefly describe what we know about the properties of cosmic rays from observations and discuss the physical mechanisms, such as diffusive shock acceleration and turbulence, believed to be responsible for accelerating thermal particles to high energies. Finally, in the last part I will present the results of our studies on first-order Fermi acceleration by fast turbulent reconnection.
Pawan Kumar - University Texas, Austin
Relativistic jets in high energy transients
Andrew Levan - University of Warwick
Long duration Gamma-ray bursts
It is now 50 years since the discovery of the first gamma-ray burst (GRB) and 20 years since the identification of the first multi wavelength afterglow. While these decades of intensive study have unveiled the answers to many questions about the origins of GRBs, new observations have continued to provide surprises, and suggest new questions and directions. I will review progress in studies of the progenitors of long duration GRBs, and highlights of their use as cosmological probes. I will also outline the central questions relating to long GRBs today, including the nature of their central engines, their role as multi-messenger probes, and their use as lighthouses into the era of the first stars.
Raffaella Margutti - Northwestern University
GRB-supernova association
Nergis Mavalvala - MIT
GW: observations
Paolo Mazzali - Liverpool University
Super luminous Supernovae
Rosalba Perna - University of Stony Brook
Electromagnetic counterparts of compact object binary mergers
Mergers of two compact objects in a binary, in addition to being sources of gravitational waves, may also be accompanied by strong electromagnetic radiation. I will discuss the expectations for double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers, and the evidence that they may be associated with short Gamma-Ray Burts. I will then speculate on the novel possibility that electromagnetic signatures may be produced also in the merger of two black holes.
Emily Petroff - ASTRON
Fast Radio Bursts: Recent Discoveries and Future Prospects
Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are quickly becoming a subject of intense interest in time-domain astronomy. FRBs have the exciting potential to be used as cosmological probes of both matter and fundamental parameters, but such studies require large populations. Advances in FRB detection using current and next-generation radio telescopes will enable the growth of the population in the next few years. Real-time discovery of FRBs is now possible with a significant number of FRBs now detected in real-time. I will discuss the developing strategies for maximising real-time science with FRBs as well as the properties of the growing FRB population. I will also discuss upcoming efforts to detect FRBs across the radio spectrum using a wide range of new and refurbished radio telescopes around the world and how these discoveries can inform next generation surveys and pave the way for the enormous number of FRB discoveries expected in the SKA era.
Anthony Piro - Carnegie Observatory
Models of fast radio bursts
Fast radio bursts are one of the fastest growing areas of study in astrophysics during the last few years. The huge rate of events and their potential for probing the Universe has excited the community. Nevertheless, their mysterious origin remains elusive, which has ignited imaginations and lead to a wide range of theoretical explanations. In my talk, I will summarize many of the leading theories for fast radio bursts, highlight their implications for our understanding of the Universe, and discuss the corresponding observational constraints. This will hopefully inform future fast radio burst surveys and followup, as well as spark new discussions for theoretical models.
Stephan Rosswog - Stockholm University
Multi-Messenger signals from gravitational wave sources
Alexander Tchekhovskoy - University of California, Berkeley
The role of accretion disks in transient sources

Scientific Organizing Committee

Miguel Alcubierre - UNAM
Edo Berger - Harvard University
Fabio De Colle (co-chair) - UNAM
Elisabete de Gouveia Dal Pino - Universidade de São Paolo
Gabriela Gonzalez - Lousiana State University
Vicky Kalogera - Northwestern University
Andrew King - Leicester University
Davide Lazzati - Oregon State University
William Lee - UNAM
Diego López Cámara (co-chair) - UNAM
Elena Pian - INAF-Bologna, SNS
Enrico Ramírez Ruiz - University of California, Santa Cruz

Local Organizing Committee

Rosa Becerra - UNAM
Fabio De Colle (co-chair) - UNAM
Diego López Cámara (co-chair) - UNAM
Enrique Moreno Méndez - UNAM

Important Dates

Abstract submission deadline July 31
Preliminary programMid August
Registration fee payment deadlineSeptember 30
Hotel reservation deadline (at a special price)October 25
ConferenceDecember 11-15


The conference will be held at the all-inclusive resort Iberostar Quetzal, in Playa del Carmen, on the Mayan Riviera, Mexico.

The hotel offers special rates for conference participants: 2,335 Mexican pesos per day (about US$125-130 depending on the Mexican Peso/US Dollar daily exchange rate) for a single room and 1,681 Mexican pesos per day per person (about US$90-95) for a double room. A webpage to book the hotel at the special price will be available at the beginning of September. This offer will remain valid until the 25th of October (subject to availability). We recommend to reserve as early as possible because December is high season in the Mayan Riviera.

Travel information

The hotel is located in Playacar, 60 km from the Cancún International Airport (about 50 minutes by car/bus) and 3 km from the center of Playa del Carmen (10 minutes by taxi/ 45 minutes walking).

The Cancún International Airport has a large number of direct flights from Europe, USA and Latin America. Low cost companies connect Playa del Carmen with main destinations in Mexico, including Mexico City.

There are several ways to go from the airport to Playa del Carmen. From the most expensive to the cheapest:

  • By Taxi: taxi costs about ~US$60. We recommend to use only official taxis by buying tickets inside the airport terminal. We will coordinate the arrival of participants who want to share taxis from the Cancun airport.
  • By Shuttle: Shuttle costs about ~US$25 per person (buy a ticket inside the terminal).
  • By Bus: Buses leave from the parking lot, just next to the terminal exit. The bus company is named "ADO". Buy a ticket at the booth next to the bus. The cost is about 180 Mexican pesos and the duration of the trip is 1 hr and 10 minutes. From the "ADO" bus station in Playa del Carmen take a taxi to the hotel (~US$5).

The Mayan Riviera and Playa del Carmen

The Mayan Riviera beaches are among the most beautiful in the world. In addition to idyllic beaches, the Yucatan peninsula hosted the Maya civilization, with its many archaeological sites, including Chichen Itzá, with the first astronomical observatory in the continent (built in 906 A.D.), Cobá and Tulum, a pre-Columbian Mayan walled city serving as a major port for Cobá.

The Yucatan peninsula is also famous for the peculiar "cenotes" (sinkholes), underground lakes (connected by rivers flowing underground) resulting from the collapse of the surrounding rock.

Playa del Carmen is one of the main touristic destination of the Mayan Riviera. The 1.5 km long "5a Avenida" is the main touristic street in Playa del Carmen and offers a dynamic nightlife (with restaurants, bars, night-clubs) and shops selling different types of Mexican art-crafts.


Winter is the most enjoyable season in Playa del Carmen. Temperatures are between 18 and 28 degree Celsius (64-83 Farenheit) and rain is not frequent: 7 days a month on average (hurricane season ends in November). The water of the Caribean sea mantains a temperature of 27 degrees Celsius (about 80 Farenheit). Do not forget your swimming suit and sunscreen!

Visa requirements

Citizens from most countries do not require a visa to enter in Mexico. A list of countries for which a visa is required is available here (official webpage, in Spanish) or here (in English). Contact the LOC for assistance in case you need a VISA.


The registration fee is 300 USD (200 USD for students) and covers coffee breaks, printed agenda, conference dinner and conference operational costs.

  • The abstract submission deadline was July 31st.

  • The registration fee must be paid before September 30 by a bank transfer. Please add to the registration fee the bank commission charge when transferring the money. After making the payment, send a copy of the transfer invoice to (please take in account that without the copy of the invoice we will not be able to track the payment).
    Notice for participants from Mexico: si necesita factura, envie a los datos fiscales (nombre completo, RFC y domicilio fiscal) para la elaboración de la misma.
    The bank account is the following:

    Transfer from Mexico (in pesos):
    Sociedad Mexicana de Física, A.C.
    Citibanamex, Cta. 3491866151
    Suc. 349. CF Jardines del Pedregal.
    Av. Paseos del Pedregal # 110, Col. Jardines del Pedregal, 01900 México, D. F.
    CLABE: 002180034918661519
    Concept: DVU-2017 (+ participant's name)

    Tansfer from the rest of the World (in USD):
    Sociedad Mexicana de Física, A. C.
    Bank Account: 9345347 (US DLLS)
    Bank: Banamex
    Office: 349
    CLABE: 002180034993453470
    Address: Av. Paseos del Pedregal # 110, Col. Jardines del Pedregal, 01900 México, D. F.
    Concept: DVU-2017 (+ participant's name)

  • Finally, remember to book the hotel room as early as possible (see here).


Zeynep Acuner
KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)
Edilberto Aguilar Ruiz
Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM (Mexico)
David Ramón Aguilera Dena
Argelander Institut für Astronomie (Germany)
Björn Ahlgren
KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)
Miguel Alcubierre
ICN-UNAM (Mexico)
Dennis Alp
KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden)
David Edwin Alvarez Castillo
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russia)
Igor Andreoni
Swinburne University of Technology (Australia)
Jeff Andrews
FORTH/University of Crete (Greece)
Jennifer Andrews
University of Arizona (USA)
Jean-Luc Atteia
IRAP - Toulouse (France)
Katie Auchettl
The Ohio State University (USA)
Arturo Avelino
CfA, Harvard (USA)
Jennifer Barnes
Columbia University (USA)
Aldo Batta
University of California, Santa Cruz (USA)
Rosa Becerra
Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM (Mexico)
Wlodek Bednarek
University of Lodz (Poland)
Damien Bégué
MPE (Germany)
Paz Beniamini
George Washington University (USA)
Mikhail Beznogov
Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM (Mexico)
Peter J. Brown
Texas A&M University & Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy (USA)
Mattia Bulla
Stockholm University (Sweden)
J. Michael Burgess
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
Matteo Cantiello
CCA, Flatiron Institute & Princeton University (USA)
Dario Carbone
Texas Tech University (USA)
Vikas Chand
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research - Mumbai (India)
Ting-Wan Chen
Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (Germany)
Ian Christie
Purdue University (USA)
Aleksandar Cikota
ESO Garching (Germany)
Alexis Coleiro
IFIC Valencia & APC Paris (Spain/France)
Kishalay De
Caltech (USA)
Fabio De Colle
Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM (Mexico)
Elisabete de Gouveia Dal Pino
Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG-USP) (Brazil)
Selma de Mink
University of Amsterdam (Netherland)
Antonio de Ugarte Postigo
Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC) (Spain)
Simone Dichiara
UNAM (Mexico)
Vikram Dwarkadas
University of Chicago (USA)
Rosa Wallace Everson
UC Santa Cruz (USA)
Elena Fedorova
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev (Ukraine)
Ryan Foley
University of California, Santa Cruz (USA)
Wen-fai Fong
University of Arizona (USA)
Ori Fox
Tassos Fragos
DARK/CTA, NBI, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)
Nissim Fraija
IA-UNAM (Mexico)
Christoffer Fremling
CalTech (USA)
Avishai Gilkis
University of Cambridge (UK)
Ramandeep Gill
The Open University of Israel (Israel)
Felipe Goicovic
Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) (Germany)
Gabriela González
Louisiana State University (USA)
Maria Magdalena González
Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM (Mexico)
Santiago Gonzalez-Gaitan
CENTRA, University of Lisbon (Portugal)
Diego Götz
CEA Irfu - Département d'Astrophysique (France)
Jonathan Granot
The Open University of Israel (Israel)
Dafne Guetta
ORT-Braude (Israel)
James Guillochon
Harvard University (USA)
Francisco S. Guzmán
Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (Mexico)
Haoning He
RIKEN (Japan)
Alexander Heger
Monash University (Australia)
A. Miguel Holgado
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (USA)
Saqib Hussain
Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG-USP) (Brazil)
Christopher Irwin
Tel Aviv University/Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)
Agnieszka Janiuk
Center for Theoretical Physics, PAS (Poland)
Alejandra Jiménez Rosales
Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)
Vicky Kalogera
Northwestern University (USA)
Atish Kamble
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (USA)
Adithan Kathirgamaraju
Purdue University (USA)
Charles Kilpatrick
University of California, Santa Cruz (USA)
Thomas Kintscher
DESY (Germany)
Filippos Koliopanos
IRAP/CNRS (France)
Grzegorz Kowal
Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (Brazil)
Kelsie Krafton
Louisiana State University (USA)
Pawan Kumar
University of Texas, Austin (USA)
Cyril Lachaud
APC - University Paris Diderot (France)
Jamie Law-Smith
UC Santa Cruz (USA)
Davide Lazzati
Oregon State University (USA)
Andrew Levan
University of Warwick (UK)
Diego López Cámara
Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM (Mexico)
Wenbin Lu
University Texas at Austin (USA)
Ragnhild Lunnan
Stockholm University (Sweden)
Raffaella Margutti
Northwestern University (USA)
Tatsuya Matsumoto
Kyoto University (Japan)
Nergis Mavalvala
Paolo Mazzali
Liverpool University (UK)
Rogelio Alan Medina
ICN-UNAM (Mexico)
Jonah Miller
Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA)
Felix Mirabel
Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio. Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Brenna Mockler
UC Santa Cruz (USA)
Anais Möller
CAASTRO & Australian National University (Australia)
Gibran Morales
IA-UNAM (Mexico)
Claudia Moreno
Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)
Enrique Moreno Méndez
UNAM (Mexico)
Takashi Moriya
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan)
Ariadna Murguia-Berthier
University of California, Santa Cruz (USA)
Jeremiah Murphy
Florida State University (USA)
Andrea Nagy
University of Szeged (Hungary)
Matt Nicholl
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (USA)
Koji Noda
Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, Barcelona (Spain)
Sam Oates
University of Warwick (UK)
Felipe Olivares E.
Millennium Institute for Astrophysics at Universidad de Chile (Chile)
Néstor Ortiz
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (Canada)
Ivan Ozaeta Hernandez
Cal State Fullerton (USA)
Dany Page
Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM (Mexico)
Chris Pankow
CIERA / Northwestern University (USA)
Dan Patnaude
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (USA)
Rosalba Perna
University of Stony Brook (USA)
Emily Petroff
ASTRON (Netherland)
Elena Pian
INAF, IASF Bologna & Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)
Giuliano Pignata
Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile)
Anthony Piro
Carnegie Observatory (USA)
Graziella Pizzichini
INAF/IASF Bologna (Italy)
Paul Plucinsky
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (USA)
Jorge Alejandro Preciado Lopez
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (Canada)
Kenia Joseline Ramírez Millán
Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)
Enrico Ramírez Ruíz
Fred Rasio
Northwestern University (USA)
Francisco Rivera
Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo (Mexico)
Ramon Daniel Rodriguez Soto
Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)
Cristina Romero Cañizales
Núcleo de Astronomía, Universidad Diego Portales (Chile)
Stephan Rosswog
Stockholm University (Sweden)
Nathaniel Roth
University of Maryland, College Park (USA)
Felix Ryde
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sockholm (Sweden)
José Rodrigo Sacahui Reyes
Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, ECFM-Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala (Guatemala)
Amirhossein Sadeghi
University of Vienna (Austria)
Mohammadtaher Safarzadeh
Arizona State University (USA)
Jesús Alberto Santos Morales
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Mexico)
Konstancja Satalecka
DESY Zeuthen (Germany)
Sophie Lund Schrøder
University of Copenhagen, NBI (Denmark)
Josiah Schwab
UC Santa Cruz (USA)
Emanuele Sobacchi
The Open University of Israel & Ben Gurion University of the Negev (Israel)
Pablo Omar Sotomayor Checa
Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas - Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)
Yudai Suwa
Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University (Japan)
Akihiro Suzuki
Kyoto University (Japan)
Tamas Szalai
University of Szeged (Hungary)
Tyler Takaro
UC Santa Cruz (USA)
Tomoya Takiwaki
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan)
Masaomi Tanaka
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (Japan)
Nial Tanvir
University of Leicester (England)
Alexander Tchekhovskoy
University of California, Berkeley (USA)
Emilio Tejeda
Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM (Mexico)
Giacomo Terreran
Northwestern University (USA)
Christina Thöne
Alexey Tolstov
Kavli IPMU, The University of Tokyo (Japan)
Nozomu Tominaga
Konan University (Japan)
Oriana Trejo
IA-UNAM (Mexico)
Gerardo Urrutia Sánchez
ICN-UNAM (Mexico)
Susanna Vergani
CNRS - Paris Observatory (France)
Alejandro Vigna Gomez
University of Birmingham (UK)
Brian Williams
Space Telescope Science Institute (USA)
Tyrone E. Woods
Monash University (Australia)
Nahliel Wygoda
Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)
Miguel A. Yáñez
IEMS. CDMX (Mexico)
Ofer Yaron
Weizmann (Israel)
Silvia Zane
Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London (UK)
Last updated: Aug 15, 2017


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